Wordsworth's Literary Precedents

William Wordsworth developed a absolute approach of poetry, in part, due to a address from Samuel Taylor Coleridge to address such a theory, and in allotment to act as an allegorical addition to the added archetype of the Lyrical Ballads. The aboriginal archetype of the Lyrical Ballads met with alloyed reviews, and was criticized for its use of accustomed accent and characters, accustomed settings, and incidents fatigued from circadian life. Wordsworth believed that the Preface to the Added Archetype of the Lyrical Ballads was an aboriginal announcement of the art of poetry, and that his work, and the plan of Coleridge represented a breach from the Neo-Classical attitude abridged by Dryden and Pope and commented aloft by Dr. Johnson. Commenting on Wordsworth's acceptance in the aboriginal attributes of the work, S.M. Parrish addendum that "whether or not they were avant-garde [Wordsworth's account on poetry], they arise to accept been admired as such by Wordsworth, who afresh cited their alteration from accustomed styles" (85).

Despite Wordsworth's acceptance in the aboriginal attributes of his anapestic practice, I will altercate that both he and Coleridge were afflicted by eighteenth-century anapestic theory, primarily that of Dr. Johnson, and that they were aswell afflicted by the plan actualization in several of the balladry magazines in the backward eighteenth century. I will afresh attack to authenticate that Wordsworth's anapestic theory, while getting acquired in assertive respects, was acclimatized in its use of affecting form, characterization, anecdotal technique, use of the acuteness and accustomed themes, and that it was the aggregate of these capacity and techniques that makes Wordsworth's balladry so enduring.

Wordsworth, in the Essay Supplementary to the Preface of 1815, authentic balladry as a alike adjustment of the "real accent of men in a accompaniment of active activity and in a address advised to accord amusement to the reader" (939). He admired to accept incidents and situations from accustomed life, and to accomplish these incidents absorbing by "tracing in them, absolutely admitting not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature" (791). He believed that the accent of rustic men and women "has been adopted (purified absolutely from what arise to be its absolute defects, from all abiding and rational causes of animosity or disgust) because such men alternate acquaint with the best altar from which the best allotment of accent is originally derived" (791). Wordsworth anticipation that rustic activity provided a moral accomplishments that was admirable from vanity and amusing convention, and therefore, that rustic personages batten "a far added abstract language, that than which is frequently commissioned for it by Poets" ( 791).

For Wordsworth, balladry was not alone a acceptable acquaintance aggregate amid columnist and reader; while he acknowledges that amusement is one of the aims of poetry, he believed that acceptable balladry accept to aswell accept a moral purpose. In one of the a lot of acclaimed passages from the Preface, Wordsworth addendum that absorption is all-important to anapestic construction, and that by consistently absorption the apperception on important subjects, the artist can aback his best thoughts to his readers, who will afresh account from them.

For all acceptable balladry is the ad-lib overflow of able feelings: and admitting this be true, Balladry to which any amount can be absorbed were never produced on any array of capacity but by a man who, getting bedevilled of added than accustomed amoebic sensibility, had aswell anticipation affiliated and deeply. For our affiliated influxes of activity are acclimatized and directed by our thoughts, which are absolutely the assembly of all our accomplished feelings; and, as by advertent the affiliation of these accustomed assembly to anniversary other, we ascertain what is absolutely important to men, so, by the alliteration and constancy of this act, our animosity will be affiliated with important subjects, till at length, if we be originally bedevilled of abundant sensibility, such habits of apperception will be produced, that, by abject blindly and mechanically the impulses of those habits, we shall call objects, and absolute sentiments, of such a nature, and in such affiliation with anniversary other, that the compassionate of the Clairvoyant accept to necessarily be in some amount enlightened, and his angel adequate and purified. (791)

The use of attributes and accustomed settings is addressed in the Preface as a agency of emphasizing man's assurance on sensation. Wordsworth believed that scenes of attributes were accustomed to all men, and that the poet, autograph as a man speaking the accustomed accent of men, was answerable to address about the sensations evoked by nature.

Undoubtedly with our moral sentiments and beastly sensations, and with the causes which accelerate these; with the operations of the elements, and with the appearances of the arresting universe; with storms and sunshine, with the revolutions of the seasons, with algid and heat, with accident of accompany and kindred, with injuries and resentments, acknowledgment and hope, with abhorrence and sorrow. These, and the like, are the sensations and altar which the Artist describes, as they are the sensations of added men, and the altar which absorption them. (795-6).

According to Wordsworth, the scenes which he witnessed are recollected in tranquility, and are reproduced, with about the aforementioned force as if aboriginal witnessed, aloft re-reading. He added believed that the clairvoyant could aswell acquaintance the aforementioned sets of angel and animosity as those accomplished by the author.

Having authentic his notions of balladry in the Preface, Wordsworth added some added musings on the art of balladry in the Appendix to the Added Archetype of the Lyrical Ballads. In the Appendix, he declared that originally, poets of all nations wrote from affection that was absolute and unaffected, and that gradually, as this appearance of autograph began to be admired, added humans chose to address in an elevated, anapestic style. This re-affirmation of a animosity of afflicted language, aboriginal developed in the Preface, is a primary acumen that he alone the writings of the Neo-Classical poets, and he distinct the balladry of Dryden and Pope as examples of an afflicted style.

In a arguable access in the Appendix, he animadversion that for works of acuteness and sentiment, there is no capital aberration amid works of balladry and book works:

...namely, that in works of acuteness and sentiment, for of these alone accept I been treating, in admeasurement as account and animosity are valuable, whether the agreement be in book or in verse, they crave and exact one and the aforementioned language, Beat is but adventitious to composition, and the argot for which that authorization is necessary, even area it adeptness be adroit at all, will be little admired by the judicious. (800)

In the Preface to the Third Archetype of the Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth attempted to analyze his notions of the use of acuteness in the autograph of poetry. He believed that acuteness was not alone the art of breeding or artful something that the artist observed, but that the apperception operated with the actual presented to it, and somehow acclimatized this actual into a anapestic composition. In attempting to call this transformative adeptness of the imagination, Wordsworth writes that the Acuteness aswell shapes and creates; and how? By innumerable processes; and in none does it added contentment than in that of accumulation numbers into unity, and abandoning and amid accord into number, - alternations proceeding from, and absolute by, a abstract alertness of the body in her own boss and about all-powerful powers. ( 804)

In the Essay Supplementary to the Third Archetype of Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth completes his academic address on anapestic approach by acquainted that the "appropriate business of balladry ...is to amusement of things not as they are, but as they appear: not as they abide by themselves, but as they assume to abide to the senses, and to the passions" (807). This access is a added clarification of his analogue of imagination, and establishes Wordsworth's angle that a artist should not be a simple anchorman of events, but that the artist should see to the affection of things as "they appear," or should be.

By the time of the advertisement of the third edition, the Lyrical Ballads, as able-bodied as the antithesis of Wordsworth's poetry, was alpha to be accustomed by the public. In a cogent animadversion to the Essay Supplementary, Wordsworth remarked that every abundant columnist has the "task of creating the aftertaste by which he is to be enjoyed: so it has been, so will it abide to be" (814). Along the aforementioned lines, Wordsworth authentic adeptness as "...the addition of a new aspect into the bookish universe: or, if that be not allowed, it is the appliance of admiral to altar on which they had not afore been exercised, or the appliance of them in such a address as to aftermath furnishings ahead unknown" ( 815).

Writing about twenty years afterwards the advertisement of the Lyrical Ballads, Coleridge offered his own angle on anapestic approach in his plan Biographia Literaria. While Coleridge was analytical of abundant of Wordsworth's approach on poetry, the two poets aggregate agnate behavior in several areas, conspicuously the accustomed anatomy of the Lyrical Ballads; the claim that balladry be acceptable to the reader; Wordsworth's use of accustomed accent as an agreement in some of the poems; and finally, a claim that the artist use his acuteness to breathing scenes with anapestic power.

In discussing the architecture of the Lyrical Ballads, Coleridge addendum that ...our conversations angry frequently on the two basal credibility of poetry, the adeptness agitative the accord of the clairvoyant by a affectionate adherence to the accuracy of nature, and the adeptness of giving the absorption of change by the modifying colors of imagination. The abrupt charm, which accidents of ablaze and shade, which moon-light or sun-set diffused over a accepted and accustomed landscape, appeared to represent the achievability of accumulation both. These are the balladry of nature. The anticipation acclimatized itself (to which of us I do not recollect) that a alternation of balladry adeptness be composed of two sorts. In the one, the incidents and agents were to be, in allotment at least, supernatural; and the arete aimed at was to abide in the absorbing of the angel by the affecting accuracy of such emotions, as would by itself accompany such situations, admitting them real. (524-5)

In the above-mentioned paragraph, we are fabricated acquainted of the accustomed architecture of the work, area Coleridge was to address about abnormal capacity with the absorbed of authoritative them assume real. Coleridge elaborates on Wordsworth's addition to the plan by adage that "For the added class, capacity were to be alleged from accustomed life; the characters and incidents were to be such, as will be begin in every apple and its vicinity, area there is a attentive and activity apperception to seek afterwards them, or to apprehension them, if they present themselves"(517).

Not alone does Coleridge acknowledgment the framework of the Lyrical Ballads in these excerpts, he aswell introduces the affair of the "modifying colors of the imagination." For Coleridge, like Wordsworth, the acuteness combines elements of the poet's senses with the cerebral admiral of the apperception to transform a acoustic article into poetry. Coleridge describes this transformative adeptness of the acuteness in abundant detail.

The poet, declared in ideal perfection, brings the accomplished body of man into activity, with the ascendancy of its commonsense to anniversary other, according to their about account and dignity. He diffuses a accent and spirit of unity, that blends, and (as it were) fuses, anniversary into anniversary by that complete and bewitched power, to which we accept alone appointed the name of imagination. This power, aboriginal put in activity by the will and understanding, and retained beneath their irremissive, admitting affable and unnoticed, ascendancy (laxis effertur hebenis) reveals itself in the antithesis or adaptation of adverse or antagonistic qualities: of sameness, with difference; of the general, with the concrete; the idea, with the image; the alone with the representative; the faculty of change and freshness, with old and accustomed objects; a added than accustomed accompaniment of emotion, with added than accustomed order; acumen anytime alive and abiding self-possession, with activity and activity abstruse or vehement; and while it blends and harmonizes the accustomed and the artificial, still subordinates art to nature; the address to the matter; and our account of the artist to our accord with the poetry. (524-5)

Finally, in discussing the accent and characters active by Wordsworth, Coleridge indicates that "In this anatomy the Lyrical Ballads were published; and were presented by him, as an experiment, whether subjects, which from their attributes alone the accustomed ornaments and extra-colloquial appearance of balladry in general, adeptness not be so managed in the accent of accustomed activity as to aftermath the acceptable interest, which it is the acclimatized business of balladry to impart" (518). In this excerpt, Coleridge states that Wordsworth advised to use chatty accent as an experiment, which was advised to abet a acceptable awareness in the apperception of the reader. Coleridge believed, however, that Wordsworth agitated the agreement too far, and after approved to aspect "the addendum of this appearance to balladry of all kinds, and to adios as abandoned and indefensible all phrases and forms of appearance that were not included in what he...called the accent of absolute life" (518- 9).

Having discussed Wordsworth's approach of poetry, and added allegorical comments from Coleridge, we can now analyze the theories developed in the Lyrical Ballads with those of Dr. Johnson, the foremost arcane analyzer of the Neo-Classical age. In the Activity of Milton, Johnson states aboriginal in the adventures that balladry "is the art of chain amusement with truth, by calling acuteness to the advice of reason" ( 117). Johnson's animadversion sounds appreciably like the theories of both Wordsworth and Coleridge apropos the claim that balladry aftermath a acceptable acknowledgment in the apperception of the reader. Continuing the altercation of the claim for balladry to be pleasurable, Johnson says a little after in Milton's adventures that "since the end of balladry is pleasure, that cannot be unpoetical with which all are pleased" (121).

Johnson had specific account on the use of accustomed settings in poetry, and commented that Milton, in The Paradise Lost, does not arm-twist a accurate appearance of nature: "But his images and descriptions of the scenes or operations of Attributes do not assume to be consistently affected from aboriginal form, nor accept the freshness, raciness, and activity of actual observation. He saw Nature, as Dryden expresses it, through the comedy of books; and on a lot of occasions calls acquirements to his assistance" (123). This animadversion by Johnson lends acceptance to Wordsworth's criticism of Neo-Classical poets as getting added anxious with form, and beneath anxious with actuality and activity in poetry. As Wordsworth maintains in his approach of poetry, the artist uses images of attributes to admit activity and awareness to his reader.

Johnson, like Wordsworth, believed that balladry should be added than simple pleasure, that it should admit a moral superior to the reader, as well. Johnson states that the aboriginal plan of the artist "is to acquisition a moral, which his allegory is afterwards to allegorize and establish. ... To aback this moral, there accept to be a fable, a account artfully constructed, so as to accelerate curiosity, and abruptness expectation" (118). Johnson, in a after passage, talks about the claim for a moral purpose in poetry, while at the aforementioned time discussing the assignment of the artist to amalgamate the elements of a agreement in an acclimatized accomplished which he accept to advance and acclaim by a nobler art, accept to breathing by affecting energy, and alter by anamnesis and anticipation; chastity accept to advise him the exact bounds, and acclimatized shades, of carnality and virtue; from policy, and the convenance of life, he has to apprentice the discriminations of character, and the addiction of the passions, either individual or combined; and analysis accept to accumulation him with illustrations and images. To put these abstracts to allegorical use, is acclimatized an acuteness able of painting nature, and acumen fiction. Nor is he yet a artist till he has accomplished the accomplished addendum of his language, acclaimed all the delicacies of phrase, and all the colours of words, and abstruse to acclimatize their acclimatized sounds to all the varieties of alike modulation. (117-118).

In the above-mentioned branch we aswell accretion acumen into Johnson's angle of imagination. To Dr. Johnson, acuteness is all-important to amalgamate the assorted acoustic inputs which the artist adventures into an acclimatized whole, through the use of the cerebral abilities of the poet. Once again, this abstraction of acuteness as a transformative adeptness bears a arresting affinity to the angle captivated by Wordsworth and Coleridge.

In defining a poem, Johnson indicates that beat is all-important and that "...it is however, by the music of beat that balladry has been discriminated in all languages; and in languages melodiously complete with a due admeasurement of affiliated and abbreviate syllables, beat is acceptable (133). It is important to agenda that Johnson does not crave that a agreement accept a beat scheme, which is aswell a appearance consort by Wordsworth, and repudiated by Coleridge in one of his a lot of acclaimed objections to Wordsworth's approach of poetry.

In his Activity of Pope, Johnson traces the development of balladry from its ancient practitioners to the present age. He says that "Thus it will be found, in the advance of learning, that in all nations the aboriginal writers are simple, and that every age improves in elegance. One clarification consistently makes way for another..." ( 320). This affect is appreciably agnate to that of Wordsworth if he says in the Appendix 1802, that: The ancient poets of all nations about wrote from affection aflame by absolute events; they wrote naturally, and as men: activity finer as they did, their accent was daring, and figurative. In afterwards times, Poets, and Men aggressive of the acclaim of Poets, acquainted the access of such language, and acquisitive of bearing the aforementioned aftereffect after getting activated by the aforementioned passion, set themselves to a automated acceptance of these abstracts of speech, and fabricated use of them, sometimes with propriety, but abundant added frequently activated them to animosity and thoughts with which they had no accustomed affiliation whatsoever. ( 799)

Finally, Johnson says that in Pope's works "are exhibited, in a actual top degree, the two a lot of agreeable admiral of an author. New things are fabricated familiar, and accustomed things are fabricated new" (316). This account is agnate to that fabricated by Wordsworth if he was defining the superior of abundance in a artist as "the addition of a new aspect into the bookish universe: or, if that be not allowed, it is the appliance of admiral to altar on which they had not afore been exercised, or the appliance of them in such a address as to aftermath furnishings ahead unknown" ( 815).

Based on these observations, we can see that Wordsworth and Coleridge were influenced, to some extent, by the Neo-Classical theories of balladry developed by Dr. Johnson. The a lot of cogent of the Johnsonian influences were the angle that balladry should aftermath a acceptable awareness in the apperception of the reader, aback a moral lesson, accurately characterize accustomed settings, and use the aesthetic admiral of the artist to accomplish an acclimatized aggregate of anapestic elements.

The added allotment of the altercation of this cardboard was to authenticate that Wordsworth and Coleridge fabricated use of a amount of anapestic conventions actualization in balladry which were arise in the arcane magazines of the backward eighteenth century. The primary antecedent for this altercation is Robert Mayo's columnist of "The Contemporaneity of the Lyrical Ballads," makes this altercation a lot of effectively.

As Mayo suggests in his paper, the Lyrical Ballads were agnate in form, accountable matter, and content, to abounding of the balladry actualization in the balladry magazines broadcast in the closing allocation of the eighteenth century. Mayo added contends that readers of the Lyrical Ballads were accustomed with the arcane styles active by Wordsworth and Coleridge, and that the arch aberration amid the balladry in the Lyrical Ballads and balladry actualization in such arcane journals as The Gentleman's Magazine, The European Magazine, and The Monthly Magazine was in agreement of aesthetic arete and not content, as the afterward citation illustrates:

The all-inclusive admeasurement of this carol [that is, carol actualization in the arcane magazines] is hopelessly mediocre, and appropriately forgotten, except that it provides the best attainable blueprint for the alive currents of accustomed taste. Through it we can partly accept the arena cool of accustomed favor which helped to accession the Lyrical Ballads to authority in animosity of adverse criticism from the Edinburgh analyst and others. (488)

The capacity developed in the balladry which appeared in the arcane magazines, and which were after taken up by Wordsworth and Coleridge, cover those of simplicity, rural or pastoral settings, humanitarianism, the role of nature, and affected morality. Mayo contends that by the time that Wordsworth and Coleridge wrote the Lyrical Ballads, such capacity were not unusual, and that they were acceptable commonplace in poetry: But the added one reads the accustomed balladry of the endure division of the eighteenth century, the added he is acceptable to feel that the absolutely hasty affection of these balladry in the Lyrical Ballads (as able-bodied as of abounding of the others) - afar from arduous arcane arete - is their acute accomplishment of an already dried convention, and not their analysis of an absorption in rivers, valleys, groves, lakes and mountains, flowers and beginning trees, the alteration seasons, sunsets, and bloom of the morning, and the songs of birds. This actuality is a commonplace. (491)

Turning to the anatomy of balladry actualization in the arcane magazines, Mayo addendum that the ballad, pastoral, complaint, fragment and account were all accustomed forms which were acclimated by authors during the backward eighteenth century: "Ballads, complaints and beefing tales, fragments, fables and anecdotes, songs and pastorals, sketches, effusions and cogitating poems, and casual pieces of assorted kinds - these were accustomed bread in the balladry departments in the years antecedent to 1798" (507).

Wordsworth and Coleridge activated the forms of ballad, pastoral, fragment, account and complaint in the balladry absolute the Lyrical Ballads. As Mayo notes, abounding critics tend to accredit the apparatus of the "lyrical ballad" to Wordsworth and Coleridge, but that:

The added one reads the accessory balladry of the magazines from 1788 to 1798, the added it is absurd to escape the consequence that the abstraction of the "lyrical ballad" does not represent a cogent addition in 1798, nor as a appellation is it decidedly acclimatized to the capacity of this aggregate of poems. (511)

Finally, Mayo contends that the "revolutionary" superior of the Lyrical Ballads is overrated and misapplied by abounding critics, acquainted that:

...but by and ample it may be affirmed that whatever the claims which accept aback been fabricated for them, the Lyrical Ballads, on the apparent at any rate, do not affectation advocate or even hasty prosodic tendencies. On the accomplished the two poets arise to been annoyed to accept meters which were accepted in their own day. (516)

Maxfield Parrish, in his plan "Dramatic Address in the Lyrical Ballads," argues that Wordsworth's absolute addition to lyric balladry was the use of affecting form, characterization, and anecdotal technique: "At one level, of course, the abstracts did absorb anapestic diction. But at a added affiliated they were, I think, abstracts in affecting form, in characterization, and in anecdotal technique." (86)

Parrish goes on to altercate that the carol anatomy accustomed Wordsworth to analyze cerebral abyss of appearance through the development of a anecdotal address that he acid through readings of abreast ballads. "But Wordsworth's abstracts in affecting and anecdotal address assume to accept been abundantly angry in the after nineties, and the advance of his anapestic development altered, by his account of carol literature" (86).

The association of the above-mentioned branch is that rather than getting a simple addict of added carol forms, Wordsworth acclimatized the carol to clothing his own objectives, which were to action a cerebral acumen into the close apparatus and animosity of his characters. Commenting on Wordsworth's absorbed to portray the animosity of his characters, Parrish animadversion that:

Whether the activity belonged to a wholly invented character, to a chatty articulation affected by the artist - or even, as in "Simon Lee" and some of the beneath pieces in carol stanzas, to the artist himself - it was, I suggest, a appropriate and aboriginal affection of these abstracts in carol form. (94)

But the use of anecdotal technique, characterization, and affecting form, while lending itself to a development of appearance that is in some means richer and added astute than beforehand poets, does not absolutely explain the continuing acceptance and access of the Lyrical Ballads. There accept to be some added account that gives acceptance to the constant superior of the work. In his cardboard "The Eye and the Article in the Balladry of Wordsworth," Frederick Pottle postulates that Wordsworth's absolute adeptness lie in his adeptness to anamnesis altar from memory, and afresh to bury them with the "coloring of imagination." Pottle maintains that Wordsworth's acclimatized use of acuteness arose from an adeptness to accumulation altar calm and to annihilate aggregate that is accidental or superfluous, acceptance him to affectation the "essence" of the article in his poems. Wordsworth does this by absorption on the altar he wishes to address about in tranquility, and to clarify the angel he is cerebration about until he is annoyed that he had captured its "essence." Pottle addendum that Wordsworth does not alpha with the general, to access at the particular, but "rather he starts with the particular, and ratifies it until he arrives at its meaning" (15- 16).

This addiction of reacting to sensation, and afresh adorning the awareness in later, attentive reflection, is one of the credo of Wordsworth's approach of balladry and is abundant in the Preface to Third Archetype of the Lyrical Ballads, as follows:

Imagination, in the faculty of the chat as giving appellation to a chic of the afterward Poems, has no advertence to images that are alone a affectionate copy, absolute in the mind, of absent alien objects; but is a chat of college import, cogent operations of the apperception aloft those objects, and processes of conception or of composition, absolute by assertive anchored laws. (803)

James Heffernan, in his book Wordsworth's Approach of Poetry: The Transforming Imagination, maintains that acuteness is the defining appropriate of Wordsworth's poetry, and is his absolute addition to anapestic approach and the antecedent of the constant address of his work.

Heffernan maintains that Wordsworth originally de-emphasized the artistic or aesthetic adeptness of the author, and approved instead to abduction an about automatic acumen into feelings, as the afterward extract demonstrates.

The poet, he insists, accept to not baffle with the burst of accustomed feeling, for a carefully called accountable will automatically accomplish amorous effusions of abundantly allegorical language. ...Depending alone on the assumption of selection, he will burden from adorning the accent of aptitude and impulse, acumen as he does so that "no words, which his adorned or acuteness can suggest, will be [comparable] with...the emanations of absoluteness and truth." (42-3)

As his account on the artistic adeptness of the acuteness began to mature, Wordsworth saw in attributes a "mentor, adviser and stimulus, [which] acts to absolve the feelings," (64) and provides man with a mirror of reality. Not alone does attributes accommodate a criterion for reality, but it is abnormally ill-fitted to collaborate with the apperception of man to aftermath a accord amid man and nature:

What we accept actuality is a concerted act. The acknowledgment alive by actuation in an aesthetic apperception makes attainable a collaboration: nature, barren after "the anapestic voice/That alternate speaks aural us" (Poetical Works, III, 264), becomes bright through the apperception and affection of man. (67-8)

This apery of attributes and the apperception of man is beheld by Wordsworth not alone as a anatomy of collaboration, but as a action which yields acumen into a man's centermost feelings: "Nature renders aback to him his centermost self, so that what he sees is a basic affinity amid the energies aural him and the energies without" (96-97). This acumen into man's centermost animosity leads Wordsworth to anatomy a angle of a agnate "power" in attributes that is affiliated to animal imagination: "Yet one affair is clear. Wordsworth absolutely finds in attributes affirmation for the actuality of a "Power" which behaves like the animal imagination" (105).

It is the purpose of the acuteness to accommodate man with a affiliation to that "other" which is anytime at the ambit of his vision; a affiliation that is accustomed in the quiet, black moments of absorption that action if we arouse the active impressions of our brightest days. Wordsworth's use of imagination, accumulated with the atypical use of affecting form, acutely accomplished characterization, and anecdotal address produced a anapestic anatomy that was abnormally actual and accessible. It is this adjacency and accessibility, accumulated with Wordsworth's aesthetic powers, that acquire the artist his constant popularity.


Coleridge, S. T. (1950). The Portable Coleridge. New York, The Penguin Group.

Johnson, S. (1973). Milton. Lives of the Poets. London, Oxford University Press. 1, 2:

Mayo, R. (1954). "The Contemporaneity of the Lyrical Ballads." PMLA 69(3): 486-522.

Parrish, S. M. (1959). "Dramatic Address in the Lyrical Ballads." PMLA 74(1): 85-97.

Pottle, F.A. (1985). "The Eye and the Article in the Balladry of Wordsworth." Modern Analytical Reviews: William Wordsworth. H. Bloom. New York, Chelsea House Publishers: 9-21.

Sheats, P. D. (1982). Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, 1800; Appendix,1802; Preface to the Archetype of 1815; Essay Supplementary to the Preface of 1815. The Allegorical Works of Wordsworth. Boston, Houghton Mifflin: 939.

Wordsworth, W. (2002). Called Balladry of William Wordsworth. New York, The Modern Library.


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